About Nepal

Nepal, a country of amazing extremes is the home of the world’s highest mountains, historic cities and the forested plains where the regal tigers and the armor plated greater one horned rhinoceros trundle at ease Situated in South Asia and surrounded by the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in the north and by India in the south, east and west, the Kingdom of Nepal covers an area of 147,181 sq. km (between 80° 4’ and 88° 12’ East and 26° 22’ and 30° 27’ North). The length of the Kingdom is 885 kilometers east to west, and varies between 145 to 241 kilometers north to south. Nepāl, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia.Nepal is divided into 7 provinces and 75 districts and 744 local units including 4 metropolises, 13 sub-metropolises, 246 municipal councils and 481 villages It has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest country by area. Bordering China in the north and India in the south, east, and west, it is the largest sovereign Himalayan state. Nepal does not border Bangladesh, which is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip. It neither borders Bhutan due to the Indian state of Sikkim being located in between.Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest,the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the nation’s capital and largest city. It is a multi ethnic nation with Nepali as the official language.The territory of Nepal has a recorded history since the Neolithic age. The name “Nepal” is first recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era which founded Hinduism, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in southern Nepal. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet.The Kathmandu Valley in central Nepal became known as Nepal proper because of its complex urban civilization. It was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala.

The Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley’s traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and later formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and Colonial India.In the 20th century, Nepal ended its isolation and forged strong ties with regional powers. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs in 1960 and 2005.The Nepalese Civil War resulted in the proclamation of a republic in 2008, ending the reign of the world’s last Hindu monarchy. Modern Nepal is a federal secular parliamentary republic. It has seven states. Nepal is a developing nation, ranking 144th on the Human Development Index (HDI) in 2016. The country struggles with the transition from a monarchy to a republic. It also suffers from high levels of hunger and poverty. Despite these challenges, Nepal is making steady progress, with the government declaring its commitment to elevate the nation from least developed country status by 2022.

Nepal also has a vast potential to generate hydropower for export. Nepal’s foreign relations expanded after the Anglo-Nepal Treaty of 1923, which was recognized by the League of Nations. After a Soviet veto in 1949, Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955. Friendship treaties were signed with the Dominion of India in 1950 and the People’s Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), of which it is a founding member. Nepal is also a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative. The military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia and is notable for its Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars, and has been a significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.The culture of Nepal is rich and unique. The cultural heritage of Nepal has evolved over the centuries. This multi-dimensional heritage encompasses the diversities of Nepal’s ethnic, tribal, and social groups, and it manifests in music and dance; art and craft; folklore and folktales; languages and literature; philosophy and religion; festivals and celebration; foods and drinks. Its culture is mostly influenced by Indian, Mongolian and Tibetan culture.


Physical Divisions: Nepal can be divided into three Physical divisions.The relief feature,climate condition and natural vegetation varies in these areas.The three divisions are briefly described here under:


Himalayan Region:The Himalayan region lies in the northern part of the country.Its height ranges from 3000 meters above the sea level.It has various lofty peaks.The world’s tallest peak,Mount Everest,which is 8848 meters high lies in this region.Other mountain peaks in the region are Manaslu,Makalu,Lhotse,Annapurna,Dhaulagiri etc.There is Perpetual snow over meters.The Himalayan region covers 15% of the total land area of our country but only about 2% of the land is suitable for cultivation.

Hilly Region:The Hilly region lies between the Himalayan region and the Terai region.It is the biggest region covering about 68% of the total land area of the country.It ranges from 600 meters to 3000 meters above the sea elevated flat lands and midland valleys.The valleys lying between the Mahabharat and the Churai ranges are called Dun or the Inner Terai.These valleys have alluvial soil and are very fertile for agriculture.

Terai Region:The southern most region of Nepal that stretches from Mechi to Mahakali is the Terai region.It lies from 300 meters above the sea level to 600 meters.It covers about 17% of the total land area of Nepal.The Terai region is very fertile.It gets plenty of rainfall.Most of the country’s agricultural activities take place in this region.This region is called the Granary Of Nepal(warehouse of Nepal) because sufficient food grains required for the country is produced in this region.



Licchavi: 1150 B.S.
Thakuri period Malla: 1750B.S.
Shah dynasty: 2063 B.S., 2008CE
Rana dynasty: 2007 B.S., 1951CE 1990
Democracy movement Nepalese Civil War: 2005


Population Structure

  • Population: 26,494,504 (2011)
  • Growth Rate: 1.35%
  • Population below 14 Years old: 34.19%
  • Population of age 15 to 59: 54.15%
  • Population above 60: 8.13%
  • Median age (Average): 20.07
  • Median age (Male): 19.91
  • Median age (Females): 20.24
  • Ratio (Male:Female): 100:94.16
  • Life expectancy (Average) (Reference:168): 66.16 Years
  • Life expectancy (Male): 64.94
  • Life expectancy (Female): 67.44
  • Literacy Rate (Average): 65.9%
  • Literacy Rate (Male): 75.1%
  • Literacy Rate (Female): 57.4%


The culture of Nepal is rich and unique. The cultural heritage of Nepal has evolved over the centuries. This multi-dimensional heritage encompasses the diversities of Nepal’s ethnic, tribal, and social groups, and it manifests in music and dance; art and craft; folklore and folktales; languages and literature; philosophy and religion; festivals and celebration; foods and drinks. Its culture is mostly influenced by Indian, Mongolian and Tibetan culture.



Nature and Wildlife diversity is a notable feature of Nepal. Because of the variance in climate, from tropical to arctic, Nepal has a large variety of plants and Animals. Wildlife tourism is also a major source of tourism in the country There are some animal species which are unique to Nepal, such as the Spiny babbler. Nepal is also host to a large number of rhododendron species. The wildlife of Nepal includes its flora and fauna. They are no natural Habitats in Nepal. Nepal has established numerous National Parks and reserves in order to protect its diverse fauna. Nepal is a biodiversity hot spot with ecoregions broadly comprising the mountainous ecoregion, the savanna and grasslands ecoregion of the terai (foothills), and the Rara Lake ecoregion, Which has many endemic species

Legal protection

Nepal has established numerous national parks and reserves in order to protect its diverse fauna ever since 1973, with the passing of the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2029 BS. There are four different “classes” of protection, ranging from national parks and nature reserves to wildlife and hunting reserves. By 1992 Nepal had established seven national parks, protecting in total over 893,200 hectares (3,449 sq mi) of land.Under these classes as of 2002 there were 23 protected areas: nine national parks, three wildlife reserves, three conservation areas, one hunting reserve, three additional Ramsar sites, and four additional world heritage sites. The most noted world heritage sites are Sagarmatha National Park and Chitwan National Park. In addition, the world heritage site in the Kathmandu Valley also covers zones of significant biodiversity.


Mammals There are 208 mammal species reported including 28 species outside the limits of the protected areas but excluding four known extinct species.Among the several species of mammal found in Nepal, notable are the Bengal fox, Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, corsac fox, Indian rhinoceros Indian elephant, marbled cat, red panda, snow leopard, Tibetan fox, and Tibetan wolf. Some of these, including the internationally recognised snow Leopard are endangered and at risk of extinction.

List of birds of Nepal There are approximately 27 Important Bird Areas in the country. And over 900 bird species (as of 2012) known to exist in Nepal of which 30 species are globally threatened, 1 species is endemic and 1 species is introduced. The Daphne, the national bird, is a type of pheasant. In addition, there are eight species of stork, five other species of pheasant,six minivets, seventeen different cuckoos, thirty flycatchers, and sixty species of warblers. The spiny babbler is the only species endemic to Nepal.


World’s Top Mountains above 8000m in Nepal

  1. Mount Everest (Highest) 8,848 m 29,029 ft, Solukhumbu District ( Nepal China Border)
  2. Kangchenjunga (3rd highest) 8,586 m 28,169 ft ,Taplejung District ( Nepal Sikkim Border)
  3. Lhotse (4th highest) 8,516 m27,940 ft District, ( Nepal China Border)
  4. Makalu (5th highest) 8,462 m 27,762 ft  Sankhuwasabha District, ( Nepal China Border)
  5. Cho Oyu (6th highest) 8,201 m 26,906 ft ,   Solukhumbu District, ( Nepal China Border)
  6. Dhaulagiri (7th highest) 8,167 m 26,795 ft Myagdi District,
  7. Manaslu (8th highest) 8,156 m 26,759 ft Gorkha District
  8. Annapurna (10th highest) 8,091 m 26,545 ft Kaski District

Flora and Fauna

Nepal’s flora and fauna can be divided into four regions:-

  1. Tropical deciduous monsoon forest
  2. Subtropical mixed evergreen forest
  3. Temperate evergreen forest
  4. Subalpine and Alpine zone

Ranging from the subtropical forests of the Terai to the great peaks of the Himalayas in the north, Nepal abounds with some of the most spectacular sceneries in the whole of Asia, with a variety of fauna and flora also unparalleled elsewhere in the region. Between NepalÕs geographical extremes, one may find every vegetational type, from the treeless steppes of the Trans-Himalayan region in the extreme north and the birch, silver fir, larch and hemlock of the higher valleys to the oak, pine and rhododendron of the intermediate altitudes and the great sal and sissau forests of the south.

The rolling densely forested hills and broad Dun valleys of the Terai along with other parts of the country, were formerly, renowned for their abundance and variety o wildlife. Though somewhat depleted as a result of agricultural settlements, deforestation, poaching and other causes, Nepal can still boast richer and more varied flora and fauna than any other area in Asia. For practical purposes, NepalÕs flora and fauna can be divided into four regions:-

  1. Tropical Deciduous Monsoon Forest:

This includes the Terai plains and the broad flat valleys or Duns found between successive hill ranges. The dominant tree species of this area are Sal (Shorea Robusta), sometimes associated with Semal (Bombax malabricum), Asna (Terminalia termentosa), Dalbergia spp and other species, and Pinus rosburghi occurring on the higher ridges of the Churia hills, which in places reach an altitude of 1800m. Tall coarse two-meter high elephant grass originally covered much of the Dun valleys but has now been largely replaced by agricultural settlements. The pipal (ficus religiosa) and the ÔbanyanÕ (ficus bengalensis) are to be noticed with their specific natural characteristics. This tropical zone is NepalÕs richest area for wildlife, with gaurs, buffaloes, four species of deer, tigers, leopards and other animals found in the forest areas rhinoceros, swamp deer and hot deer found in the valley grasslands and two species of crocodile and the Gangetic dolphin inhabiting the rivers. The principal birds are the peacock, jungle fowl and black partridge, while migratory duck and geese swarm on the ponds and lakes and big rivers of Terai. Terai forests are full of jasmin, minosa, accecia reeds and bamboo.

  1. Subtropical Mixed Evergreen Forest:

This includes the Mahabharat Lekh, which rises to a height of about 2400m and comprises the outer wall of the Himalayan range. Great rivers such as the Karnali, Narayani, and Sapta Koshi flow through this area into the broad plains of the Terai. This zone also includes the so-called Ômiddle hillsÕ which extend northwards in a somewhat confused maze of ridges and valleys to the foot of the great Himalayas. Among the tree species characteristic of this region are Castenopsis indica in association with Schima wallichii, and other species such as Alnus nepalensis, Acer oblongum and various species of oak and rhododendron which cover the higher slopes where deforestation has not yet taken place. Orchids clothe the stems of trees and gigantic climbers smother their heads. The variety and abundance of the flora and fauna increase progressively with decreasing altitude and increasing luxurance of the vegetation. This zone is generally poor in wildlife. The only mammals, which are at all widely distributed, are wild boar, barking deer, serow, ghoral and bears. Different varieties of birds are also found in this zone. Different varieties of birds are also found in this zone.

  1. Temperate Evergreen Forest:

Northward, on the lower slopes and spurs of the great Himalayas, oaks and pines are the dominant species up to an altitude of about 2400m above which are found dense conifer forests including Picea, Tusga, Larix and Abies spp. The latter is usually confined to higher elevations with Betula typically marking the upper limit of the tree line. At about 3600 to 3900m, rhododendron, bamboo and maples are commonly associated with the coniferous zone. Composition of he forest varies considerably with coniferous predominating in the west and eracaceous in the east. The wildlife of this region includes the Himalayan bear, serow, ghoral, barking deer and wildboar, with Himalayan tahr sometimes being seen on steep rocky faces above 2400m. The red panda is among the more interesting of the mammals found in this zone; it appears to be fairly distributed in suitable areas of the forest above 1800m. The rich and varied avifauna of this region includes several spectacular and beautiful pheasants, including the Danfe pheasant, NepalÕs national bird.

  1. Subalpine and Alpine Zone:

Above the tree line, rhododendron, juniper scrub and other procumbent woody vegetation may extend to about 4200m where it is then succeeded by t a tundra-like association of short grasses, sedge mosses and alpine plants wherever there is sufficient soil. This continues up to the lower limit of perpetual snow and ice at about 5100m. The mammalian faun is sparse and unlikely to include any species other than Himalayan marmots, mouse hare, tahr, musk deer, snow leopard and occasionally blue sheep. In former times, the wild Yak and great Tibetan sheep could also be sighted in this region and it is possible that a few may still be surviving in areas such as Dolpa and Humla. The bird life at such as lammergeyer, snowcock, snowpatridge, choughs and bunting, with redstarts and dippers often seen along the streams and rivulets. Yaks are the only livestock, which thrive at high altitude. They serve both back and draught animals. The cheeses prepared out of the milk are edible for months. The female Yak provides milk to the Sherpa’s. Of the wonderful flora and fauna must suffice to indicate what a paradise Nepal is to the lovers of wild animal and bird life, to the naturalists and to the foresters.

  1. Tropical deciduous monsoon forest
  2. Subtropical mixed evergreen forest
  3. Temperate evergreen forest
  4. Subalpine and Alpine zone


Religious Traditions and Festivals

Nepal is a multicultural, multilingual and multiethnic country. Similarly, Nepal has the people of different religious tolerance among the people. However, the people who follow Hindu religion are in great number.Besides this, Buddhism is another popular religion of Nepal.The founder of Buddhism is Gautam Buddha. Who was born in Lumbini ,Nepal. He is famous as the Light of Asia.There are many followers of Islam ,Christianity, Shikhism, Jainism and Kirat religion.Every religion has its own values and norms. People of every religion can celebrate their festivals according to their culture and traditions. Some important festivals are as follow. Some festival which is celebrated by different religious communities of  Nepal. And This festival is also known as national festivals.


The Hindus all over the world celebrate Dashain.It is also known as Bada Dashain,Durga Puja,Dusshera and Kalipuja.It falls in autumn in the months of either September or October every year. It is celebrated for fifteen days from the day of Ashwin Shukla Pratipada i.e., Ghatasthapana till Purnima,Goddess Durga is worshipped on the occasion. She is regarded as the Goddess of Power.

The elder members in the family put Tika and Jamara and bestow blessings to the younger members on the tenth day to mark this occasion .The tenth day is remembered as the Day of Victory i.e,Vijaya Dashami. The other major days of Dashain are Phulpati of Saptami,kalaratri or Mahasthami and Mahanawami,which fall on the seventh, eighth and the ninth day respectively .  It is a festival of union in the family,of great joy and extreme delight. People put on new clothes and eat delicious food They go to Dashain fair and exchange greetings and good wishes .People ,rich or poor, enjoy alike. It is believed that this festival is celebrated to mark the victory of Goddess Durga over Maisasur ,a demon, and Lord Rama over Ravana ,the demon King of Lanka. This festival, there for, symbolizes the victory of good over evil and truth over falsehood.


It is another great festival of the Hindus .People celebrates it with great pomp and show. It comes about fifteen days after Dashain. This festival is also called Diwali or Deepawali i.e.,the festival of lights. It is observed for five days from Kartik Krishna Dwadashi up to Kartik Pratipada.The first two days of this festival are dedicated to Kag i.e.,the crow,and Kukur,i.e.,the dog.The third day is called Gai Tihar or Laxmi Puja.Cows are worshipped on this day in the morning and Goddess Laxmi in the evening.She is regarded as the Goddess of Wealth.People clean their houses,decorate and illumine them all night by putting candles,small oil lamps or colourful electric bulbs.And they pray that Goddess Laxmi dwell in their house.People,particularly girls and women play Bhailo in groups on the night of Laxmi Puja.The Gobardhan Puja is observed on the fouth fay and oxen are worshipped.People play Dheusi during the night and the next day.

The final day is called the Bhaitika.On this day; sisters worship their brothers and wish for their long and healthy life. They put tika and garland them. They serve different varieties of sweets, fruits and delicacies to their brothers. The brothers, in turn, give them cash and gifts. It is believed that this festival is celebrated to mark the return of Lord Rama to his Kingdom in Ayodhya after fourteen years in exile.


Chhat is a great festival of the Hindus of central Terai.Especially the Maithili people. It is a festival of the Sun-God. It is celebrated on the fifth day of Kartik Shukla,six days after the Laxmi Puja .Both men and women celebrate this festival. However, only women observe fast during the day for three days, worship the setting sun in the evening and then only eat. On the sixth day, they all gather around richly decorated platforms near a local pond or a nearby river early in the morning. They take bath and worship the rising sun with flowers and lamps for the long life and good health of their husbands. After finishing the worship, all the family members sit together and eat variety of sweet. It brings happiness and joy in the family and community.


Lhosar is a Buddhist festival.Lho means year and Sar means new.Lhosar thus basically is a New Year festival. It is celebrated mainly in the Himalayan region by the Gurungs,Tamangs and the Sherpas.They celebrate Lhosar according their own community and customs.Some celebrate it on 15th of Poush,some on Magh Shukla Pratipada and others on Falgun Shukla Pratipada.The Gurungs celebrates Tamu Lhosar,the Tamangs celebrate Sonam Lhosar and the Sherpas observe Gyalpo Lhosar. Lhosar is a festival of feast, joy and dance. People draw swastiks,symbol of peace and good fortune ,in their homes. They also decorate their homes with paintings of natural elements like the Himalayas, the sun, and the Moon. They wear new clothes and eat sumptuous meals. They generally gather at public places and play games, engage in fun, sing and dance. They also visit their elders and seek their blessings for a healthy and prosperous New year. They exchange greetings and gifts with each other.


The most important festival for the Christians is Christmas.It is also known as X-Mas.The letter X represents the holy sign Cross for the Christians.It falls on 25 December every year.It marks the birth anniversity of Jesus Christ,the founder of Christianity.It is generally celebrated for three days from 24 to 26 December. Christmas eve is celebrated on 24 December.On Christmas eve,they decorate a pine tree called Christmas Tree with candles,colourful papers,balloons and flowers.They keep  the presents and cards given by their friends and relatives under this tree.They open them later to know who owns the most and best of them.They have great fun.

The Christmas father is Santa Claus.It is believed that he comes during the night and leave presents for the children in their socks.During the day,they go to church and pray together.They put on special caps and new clothes.

26 December is known as Boxing Day.Rich people give boxes full of gifts or money or food and clothes ot the poor people.They visit their friends and relatives on the occasion and have a lot of fun,is celebrated as the New Year Day.The christian era started from this date from the time of jesus Christ.They exchange New Year greetings and wish each other good health and prosperity in life.


Eid is a New Year festival of the Muslim community according to the Hijri or Hijaratera.The Hijriera began from the time of Prophet Mohammad who is the messanger of their Allah.All the Muslims follow the Hijri calender.It is believed that some people threatened to kill Prophet Mohammad while he was preaching his ideas. He along with his followers,therefore,left Mecca for Medina.This journey is called Hijara which means migration.Mecca and Medina are thus the two most holy places of the Muslims. The Muslims observe a month long fast called Roza during the month of Ramjan. They do not eat anything, not even drink water during daytime.All the family members sit together and eat after sun set. They believe that this will purge and discipline them. They celebrate the last day of Ramjan as Eid-ul-Fitr.They congratulate,embrace and greet each other Eid Mubark which means Happy New Year.They put on new clothes,eat variety of sweets and visit their friends and relatives.They go to the mosques and read Namaz. They also give alms called Zakat to the poor,disabled and needy people.

All these religious festivals carry the message of love and peace.They help to foster friendship,brotherhood and peace in society.Hence,they promote national unity and integration.

Maghe Sangkranti

Maghe Sangkranti has a great importance in the Nepalese society. Most of the Nepalese festivals are based on lunar calendar. Yet there are some festivals which are based on solar calender.Nawabarsha(New Year),15th Asar,Saune Sangkranti along with the Maghe Sagrakanti are the festivals based on solar calendar. Sangkranti means the first day of the month .Therefore, Maghe  Sangkranti is observed on the first day of the month –Magh.This festival is observed to mark the end of winter season.During December 22nd the sun comes gradually to norhern hemisphere ,and the palces at the northern hemisphere start to get warmer. Maghe Sangkranti is a social festival. It is celebrated in different ways in different parts of the country.In hilly regions people gather at the riverside and take bath early in the morning and eat Till ko Laddu(a kind of sweet made of sesame),boiled roots(yam, sweet  potato, potato ,etc.)and Khichadi (dish made with rice and lentil together ).It is believed that all the food that we eat on this day shall have been cooked at the previous day(end of the Poush month)except Khichadi .In terai ,especially in Tharu community ,this day is celebrated as ‘Maghi’. This day marks the New Year in their community. Many of the fairs are organized at different parts of the country. The fun and excitement of these fairs are remembered throughout the year. This is the one of the days of celebration of social value.such celebrations construct our culture and traditions. It is our duty to conserve these festivals which are celebrated by different communities of the country.

Ram Nawami

Ram Nawami is one of the important festivals of all the Hindu people of Nepal.It falls on the 9th day of the full moon fortnight of Chaitra. It is believed that the Lord Ram was born on this day.Lord Ram was one of the most influential incarnations of Lord Vishnu who is one of the Trinity.Lord vishnu is the God who takes care of all the living beings after being created by Brahma.It is believed Lord Mahesh (Shiva) takes the life later on.

Ram was an ideal person.he was obedient to his parents and the caretaker of responsibilities.  Gain Knowledge of obedience, brotherhood, peace, endurance, tolerance, apology, justice and above all the truthfulness by studying his life. Many people observe this day with fasting .Early in the morning people visit the temples of Lord Ram. A grand fair takes places at Ram Janaki Temple in Janakpur.

 Religious Traditions and Festivals

Nepal is a multicultural, multilingual and multiethnic country. Similarly Nepal has the people of different religious tolerance among the people however; the people who follow Hindu religion are in great number. Besides this, Buddhism is nether popular religion of Nepal. The founder of Buddhism is Gautam Buddha. Who was born in Lumbini, Nepal. He is famous as the Light of Asia.There are many followers of Islam, Christianity, Shikhism, Jainism and Kirat religion. Every religion has its own values and norms.People of every religion can celebrate their festivals according to their culture and traditions.Some important festivals are as follow.

Janai Purnima

Janai Purnima is the common name of the festival Rishi Tarpani or Raksha Bandhan. This festival falls on Shrawan Shukla Purnima (The full moon day of Shrawan).This day is one of the most important days for the Hindu community because it has highly religious value. People take bath early in the morning and the male members of Brahman and Chetri change Janai for the year.Janai is the sacred thread,which they start to wear after the Bratabandha or Upanayan ceremony. On the same day all the people receive another sacred thread yagyopav it (Raksha Bandan).It is believed that this tread prevents them from on every kind of misfortunes. In the terai sisters tie Rakhi on the brothers’ wrists, secure their brothers making from any kind of mishaps.On this day all the people of Newar community prepare a special Kind of soup,Kwanti which is made by mixing nine different kinds of seeds.


This festival is celebrated by the women of Hindu society.This festival falls on Bhadra Shukla Tritiya (the third day of the full moon of Bhadra).This festival is also known as Haritalika.On this day all the women observe fasting for the whole day .It is believed that in the Vedic period, Parvati observed fasting on this day hoping to marry with Lord Shiva. And just after that she got married with him .So, the married women celebrate this festival for better status and long lives of their husbands and the unmarried girls wish for good husbands. On the eve of Teej(The evening before the fasting day)all the women eat ‘Dar’ with the family members. Dar is a special meal, prepared for that special day of Teej.

Shree Panchami

The festival which is celebrated on the fifth day of Magh Shukla Panchami (the fifth day of the full moon day of Magh)is famous as Shree Pancchami.This is also called as Basanta Panchanmi as spring season begins from this day. Saraswati is worshipped on this occasion Saraswati is the goddess of learning and wisdom .Most of the people of Hindu community go to the nearby Saraswati temple and worship her. This is the special day for the students. People believe that this students .People believe  that day is the best day for their children to start formal learning because they believe that goddess Saraswati gives them a divine blessing on this day.In Buddhist community, this day is called as Manju Panchami.Manjushree is the god of learning for the Buddhists.


This is the main festival of the Rai c community. This festival is celebrated  on two days of the year.The first is the Udhauli and other is the Ubhauli.Udhauli falls at Kartik/Mangsir and Ubhauli in Baishakh/Jestha.This festival is celebrated differently at different places.Some people celebrate it with chandi Nach, some with Sakela or Sakewa or some with Sakela or Sakewa or some other with Baishake or Badanmet.It is because Rai community has different cultures at different places.At this festival Nakchhong(the priest)recites Mundhum at different religious places like Chandithan,Margathan or Mangkhim.At every household people celebrate this festival worshipping ancestors and dance playing with Dholjhyamta. They eat different delicious foods and enjoy together.


People of Nepal

Nepal’s social customs and People


Nepal is a multilingual, multiracial and multi-religious country. It is said that Nepal is garden of four castes and thirty-six sub-castes. People from different castes and religions live here in mutual cooperation and friendly environment. They make a common culture, which is called Nepali culture .The people living in mountains are of different cultures than those living in hills and the Terai. Some of the social characters, cultures, traditions, practices and customs are described below.

Brahmins and Chhetris

Brahmins and Chhetris live in all the ecological zones like the Mountain, Hill and Terai. They follow Hindu tradition. They are very rich in culture and high position in the society. After eleven days of child birth , the family celebrates Nwaran ceremony which is naming day. Bratabandha is performed for a son.The boy is given sacred thread (janai) after some religious rites. After reaching adulthood individuals perform marriage.Marriage is an important social custom. Recently, love and arranged marriages are also becoming popular. They burn the dead body according to Hindu tradition. They celebrate many festivals like Dashain,Tihar,Teej,Janai purnima,shivarati.Holi and Chhat are especially celebrated in the Terai region.


Mostly Newars live in Kathmandu Valley. Newars are very rich in their culture and customs.It is said that there is seldom a month when Newari festival does not take place. The Nwaran is don from the fourth to eleventh day of the birth. Belbiwaha (lhi) is very famous among the Newars.They have customs of Gufa for the girls.Both love and arranged marriages are practiced. Dead body is burnt according to their tradition. They celebrate Dashian,Tihar (Mhapuja)Gai Jatra, Ghode Jatra,Indra Jatra,Gathemangal,Kumari Jatra,Maghe sankranti etc.with great extravagance.


Magar mostly live in the hills.The name giving ceremony is performed from the eleventh to fifteenth day of the baby’s birth. Magars have become the most tolerable caste among the Nepalese.Love,arranged and Jari marriage are seen in the Magar community. Marriage between ‘Mama Cheli’ and ‘Phupu Chelo’is common in Magar community.They cheer their life everyday with eating and dancing.The deceased is burnt in this community.Koura Nach,Ghatu Nach,Nag Pooja,etc.are popular festivals among the Magars.


The Sherpas live in the high hills and mountains. The Nwaran ceremony is celebrated on the third, seventh and eleventh days of the baby’s birth. Mostly they belong to Buddhism .Love, arranged and jari marriages are practiced. Dead body is buried in a crematorium .Lhosar ,Dumji, Osho, etc .are the famous festivals among the Sherpa’s.


The Tharus live mostly in the Terai. They are very simple minded people .Their peculiar culture is famous all over the world. The Nwaran is performed from the sixth to ninth day of the birth. Both love and arranged marriages are practiced. The dead body is either burned or buried .Maghi ,Phagu,Jitia, etc. are the famous festivals in Tharu community.


The Limbus live in the eastern mountains of Nepal  Nwaran(Name giving ceremony)of girl child is done on third day,but boy’s name is given on the fourth day of the birth. They worship nature like rivers and Himal. Love marriage, arranged marriage and ‘Chori Bibaha’ are very common in Limbu community. The dead body is buried in a fixed crematorium. They celebrate famous festivals Udhauli on the full moon day of Mangsir and Ubhauli on the full moon day of Baishakh.Dhan Nacha is famous folk dance of Limbu community.


Rais community mostly lives in eastern hills of Nepal. They give name to the newly baby from the third day to the sixth day of their birth.They follow both love and arranged marriages.After death the dead body is buried in a grave in a fixed place. They have a peculiar custom of firing guns during funeral procession,Chandi Naach(Sakela),Nwagi and Badangmet are their festivals.